CHEOPS  PYRAMID

G2 - The Kings Chamber 2

Article first time online: 10 July 2009.
Reworked : March 2020.

The King's Chamber as the piston of a hydraulic press seems to be impossible because the floor does not meet the requirements. Nevertheless, that hydraulic press has worked, the King’s Chamber is at its highest point and the small piston is now at the bottom of the cylinder below the great gallery. In order to find a possible solution, let's compare some drawings of the King's Chamber with the known data to be able to determine the exact construction of it. Maybe an accurate drawing can give us a clue.

B - KC20 - Drawing by the Edgar Brothers. [6]

C - KC21 – Drawing by W.M. Flinders Petrie - Plate 9 K [3]

A - KC22 - Drawing by Charles Piazzi Smyth – Plate 13. [4]

D - KC23 - Drawing(s) by Maragioglio & Rinaldi. [7]

On this drawing:
The floor of the King’s Chamber 43.02 meter above pavement (82.16 cubit).
High step in the great gallery 43.03 meter above pavement (82.18 cubit).
Height of King’s Chamber 5.84 meter (11.15 cub).
Total height between the floor of the King’s Chamber
and bottom of roof beams 21.10 meter (40.3 cubit).

KC24 – 4 different drawings of the King’s Chamber.

On the above drawings is to see there are only very small differences in the measurements for the King's Chamber and the granite layers above it. In summary, the following values can be considered correct:

Dimensions relative to the pavement around the pyramid:
The floor of the King’s Chamber: 82.15 cubit above pavement.
The king’s Chamber ceiling: 93.30 cubit above pavement.
The center point (M) of the pyramid: 107.30 cubit above pavement.


The center point of the Pyramid is at a height of 107.3 cubit, this is not an exact number of cubit but this is of course specific to the outside dimensions of the pyramid. The ceiling of the royal chamber is exactly 14 cubit lower than the center, this is strong proof that the center of the pyramid has indeed played an important role in its design. Apparently the ceiling of the royal room was more important than the floor.

Moreover, and that is really strange, the height of the royal chamber isn’t an exact number of cubit, but rather 11.15 cubit. The King’s Chamber measures exactly 10 by 20 cubit, it looks like the designers wanted to give us the impression that this room was very important. So, why is the height of that room then not exactly 11 cubit? The center point of the pyramid is at a height of 107.3 cubit, this 0.3 cubit can’t be ignored. But, the floor of the pyramid is 82.15 cubit above the pavement and the height of the royal chamber is 11.15 cubit, that’s twice 0.15 cubit. The design could just as well have laid the floor at a height of 82.3 cubit, so that the height of the King’s Chamber was exactly 11 cubit. It becomes clear this 0.15 cubit must have a very special meaning, moreover, one of those 0.15 cubit sits on the inside the King’s Chamber. It seems that the designers of the pyramid wanted to give us a hint here too. But exactly what did they want to make clear to us here?

The King’s Chamber has functioned very well as a piston and has been pushed upwards in its cylinder. It's very strange, but this 0.15 cubit gives the feeling the displacement of that piston sits in the inside of the King's Chamber. But, how is this possible?

 

KC25 - The piston is only formed by the walls of the King's Chamber, the floor isn't part of it. The granite blocks of the floor are resting on the core of the pyramid. The upward force came exclusively upon the bottom of the walls.

Eventually, the realization comes that the floor of the King’s Chamber isn’t a part of the piston, the granite blocks of the floor rest on the core of the pyramid. It are only the walls of that chamber that form the piston. Before this piston was pushed up, the ceiling of the King’s Chamber stood a whole lot lower. So, in the initial phase that chamber was not nearly as high as it is nowadays.

Because of this new insight, we no longer know the total ground surface of the piston, nor do we know its upward displacement. Over how many cubits this piston has been pushed upwards? Without a hint from the pyramid builders, we will not get a step further.


The Golden Ratio.

Some claim that the intention was to make the height of the King’s Chamber equal to 11.18 cubit. Although the vast majority of the drawings indicate 11.15 cubit, this 11.18 cubit can indeed have been the intended value. Whether the real size is 11.18 or else 11.15 cubit doesn’t really matter that much, and should rather be seen as e.g. 11 + 1/7 cubit and on itself this hasn't any specific meaning.

KC26 – The floor of the King’s Chamber measures 10 by 20 cubit.
The half diagonal measures exactly 11.18 cubit.

But, if it was indeed the intention to make the height of the King's Chamber equal to 11.18 cubit, then this value can become meaningful. In particular the half diagonal of the floor in the King's Chamber has a length of exactly 11.18 cubit, possibly the pyramid builders had the intention to give the same height to this room, just to draw our attention to... something.


Well now, the "golden ratio" means the division of a line segment into two parts in a special ratio. At the golden ratio, the larger of the two parts relates to the smaller, just as the entire line segment relates to the larger.

Wikipedia: In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities. The figure on the right illustrates the geometric relationship. Expressed algebraically, for quantities a and b with a > b > 0

 


Golden Ratio see Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_ratio

Euclid: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclid

KC27 – Line segment divided into 2 parts follows the golden ratio.

As a formula this becomes: a / b = (a + b) / a

so 12.631 / 7.639 = 1.618 = (20) / 12.361

If we indicate the largest part with [a] and the smallest part with [b], then the ratio of both is such that:

a / b = 1.618

The ratio a/b referred to is called the golden number and is indicated by the Greek letter Phi and is equal to 1,618

The name "golden section" dates from the 30s of the 19th century, but this special ratio of line segments has been studied since ancient times. This formula was probably elaborated by Euclid (300 BC). However, it is by no means certain that the ancient Egyptians already knew this geometric function. But if we assume that this was indeed the case and that this is indeed the golden section, then further calculations with these values ​​seem to proceed correctly.

KC28 – The golden ratio applied to the short side of the King’s Chamber.
10 cubit/1,618 = 6.18 cubit.

To determine the golden ratio geometrically, one must start from a rectangular triangle whose sides relate as 1 to 2, in our case here 5 to 10 cubit. The sloping side then measures exactly 11.18 cubit. The golden ratio here is (a + b) / a = 10 cubit/6.18 cubit = 1.618 = Phi. It seems that someone wanted to make clear this 11.18 cubit has been divided into 2 parts, namely 6.18 and 5 cubit, based on the golden ratio.

 


The height of the King's Chamber.

So, if it was indeed a hint from the pyramid designers, we can assume that the height of the King's Chamber was originally 5 cubit and that the piston was pushed up over a distance of 6.18 cubit (or vice versa, starting at 6.18 cubit and going up over 5 cubit to 11.18 cubit). The floor is attached to the core of the pyramid and remained at the same level, the final height of the ceiling in this room became 11.18 el.

KC29 – The original dimensions of the drawing below (KC30) in meters.
The dimensions are converted to cubit and rounded to the nearest ½ palm (fractions).

KC30 – Drawing by Maragioglio & Rinaldi. [7]
The King’s Chamber & the construction Chambers above it (side 10 cubit).

KC31 – The granite beams of layer 5 belong to the core of the pyramid.
They are not part of the “piston”!

Petrie wrote: “In the fourth chamber the supporting blocks along the N. and S. sides are all of limestone.”


So, in the north and south wall of space Z4 it aren’t granite blocks anymore, it’s all limestone. Here Petrie went wrong, it are not supporting blocks but instead it are limestone blocks that are part of the core of the pyramid. It can take a very long time, but eventually one begins to realize that the granite beams of layer 5 belong to the core of the pyramid. The granite beams of it are laying on the massive part of the pyramid. Layer 5 is not resting on layer 4, but on the core of the pyramid, layer 5 isn't part of the piston!

KC32 – The dimensions are based on a drawing by Maragioglio & Rinaldi. [7]
Their drawing seems to be very accurate and fit well in the corbelled space. Vertical section of the King’s Chamber, looking on the side of 10 cubit.
The King’s Chamber with 4 layers of granite beams on top of it,
stands like a crown in Cheops’ pyramid.

It is possible that Maragioglio & Rinaldi started with a drawing of a corbelled space to draw the granite beams in it. However, this drawing seems very accurate and will correspond well with reality [KC30].

KC33 – Vertical section along the north-south axis, looking at the west side
(10 cubit). Above the space for the King’s Chamber (the piston), there is a corbelled roof just like in the great gallery. All the granite beams and granite supporting blocks just fit in the corbelled rooftop above the King’s Chamber.

KC34 – Vertical section along the north-south axis, looking at a side of 10 cubit. Layer 5 (granite beams) belong to the core of the pyramid. The piston is formed by the walls of the King’s Chamber + 4 layers on top of it.

The piston of the hydraulic press itself consists of the walls of the King’s Chamber (without the floor) plus the 4 layers of granite beams above it. Layers L1 to L4 together with the supporting blocks rest on the walls of the King’s Chamber. This whole “crown” stands in an open space in the pyramid that is slightly larger than the outside of the King’s Chamber itself. This open space has a corbelled roof that becomes 1 cubit narrower after every layer of granite beams. At the very top, that space has been completely closed off with granite beams with a length of about 12.5 cubit. In the beginning, when the piston stood still a few cubit lower, layer 5 was already present. There are fairly deep round holes in the top of these granite beams, wooden poles were probably placed in these holes to support the roof slabs when they were placed. Once the roof beams were firmly anchored in place, these posts were removed again. Afterwards, the space just below the roof beams (Z5) was sealed on the sides with lime blocks, these blocks are no longer as well finished as in the other construction rooms but are very rough, like most blocks in the masonry of the core.

Petrie Sec. 63 – page94: In the fifth or top chamber, the width is quite undefined; and we can only say that between the points where the sloping roof–slabs appear is 247 inches……[12 cubit] The end walls are very rough, being merely the masonry of the core…… The flooring of the top chamber has large holes worked in it, evidently to hold the butt ends of beams which supported the sloping roof–blocks during the building.


On the drawings above (KC33 & KC34) the spaces for the granite layers are presented with straight lines, these are the maximum length the granite beams could have. The walls behind these beams or behind the granite supporting blocks are drawn if this were very smooth and straight limestone blocks, in reality these block are very rough and unfinished.


[7] On plate 8 of the drawings (pdf files) made by Maragioglio & Rinaldi, there’s a top view of the Davison Chamber. These drawings are available on the internet but it’s not so clear if there’s a copyright on it or not. So, please check these drawings on the internet.

 

L'Architettura della Piramide Menefite, Rapallo 1965, Vol. IV
PDF Drawings Online:


http://gizamedia.rc.fas.harvard.edu/images/MFA-images/Giza/GizaImage/full/library/maragioglio_piramidi_4tav.pdf

 


Thanks to the excavations and chopping away the limestone blocks by Davison and later on by Vyse and Caviglia we now have some idea of the limestone blocks in the north and south wall behind the granite beams and supporting blocks. In the east wall only small cavities have chopped out by Vyse and/or Caviglia, the west wall stayed untouched until present. It’s assumed that the limestone blocks in the east and west wall of the spaces above the granite layers are part of the core of the pyramid.


The granite beams, the granite supporting blocks as well as the limestone blocks behind it, at the south wall as well as the north wall, are very irregular. However, there’s always a fairly large space between the granite and the limestone blocks behind it. It'll be very hard to believe that these granite layers could move independently from the limestone blocks in the walls behind it.

The architects of the pyramid have done their at most effort to give us the impression that the granite beams above the King's Chamber were completely unimportant, that it was more than sufficient if they fitted between the walls around it. They wanted absolutely to convince us that there was nothing of interest to find there.

But no, they can't fool us any longer. Inside the pyramid nothing is random, everything has been meticulously calculated and planned. If apparently some totally insignificant details are found in the dimensions and/or the degree of finishing, such as those granite beams above the royal chamber, then it is highly advisable to study these details much more thoroughly. Doing so, very amazing details can come to light.


In the construction space Z4 (drawing KC34, marked with X) for example, some vertical lines can still be seen that were drawn on the north and south wall by the masons. These lines served to indicate where exactly the granite beams were to be placed on the walls of the King's Chamber. Petrie has been so kind to measure these lines as well.


[3] Petrie sec. 63 – page 93: Along the N. wall, from the E. end of the floor as 0, there is a line at 37.8, another at 58.5 another at 450.6, and the W. end at 481 thus the extreme lines are 412.8 apart, with a supplemental line at 20.7 from one of them. This last was probably put on in case the end line should be effaced in building, so that the workmen would not need to remeasure the whole length.


On the S. wall, from the E. end = 0, there is a line at 32.6, another at 384.7, another at 446.5, and the W. end at 467; here the extreme lines are 413.9 apart, with a supplemental line 61.8 (or 3 X 20.6) from one end. Along both sides of the chamber is a red line all the way, varying from 20.6 to 20.2 below the ceiling; with the vertical lines just described crossing it near each end.

KC35 – The sizes of the construction rooms.

Table KC35: Still according to Petrie, all the layers above the King's Chamber have a maximum width of 481 inch or 23.3 cubit. On the drawings by Maragioglio & Rinaldi the greatest distance is 11.99 meter, this is 22.9 cubit or 472 inch. So, 23.3 cubit will be the largest distance of all.

KC36 – The lines A, B, C and D can be found on the north wall in the space Z4.

It should be noted that the granite beams don't extend as far beyond the inside of the eastern wall as on the western wall of the King’s Chamber. Along the north wall, on the west side, between lines C and D, it’s (481-450.6) inches = 30.4 inches or 1.47 cubit. On the east side, between the lines A and B it’s (0 to 37.8) inches = 37.8 inches or 1.83 cubit. That’s a difference of approximately 2.5 palm (18.7 cm or 7.36 inch). The same story along the south wall, here the difference is even a little larger (1.5 - 1 = 0.5 cubit or 3.5 palm). This difference isn’t a coincidence, the pyramid builders must have planned it exactly this way. The question remains why they did so.

KC37 – The outside of the King’s Chamber is 25.58 cubit.

The outside of the King’s Chamber is 26.58 cubit long and stands totally free in a shaft of 26.72 cubit. The construction chambers above it are maximum 23.3 cubit wide and beside these granite beams limestone blocks were placed. Almost everybody assume these limestone blocks are part of the core of the pyramid. That we are thinking this way must indeed have been the intention of the pyramid builders. The reality will be that these limestone blocks are resting on the granite walls of the King’s Chamber and are standing loose from the core of the pyramid. In other words, the King’s Chamber is 26.58 cubit on the outside and the construction chambers have the same size. The King’s Chamber with the construction chambers on top of it are and stays 26.58 cubit wide until the top is reached. This “crown”, the whole construction of the King's Chamber and the granite layers on top of it, is standing in a shaft of 26.72 cubit wide. The width of this shaft stays the same until it reaches the roof beams.


On the east side these limestone blocks are 1.46 cubit thick (76.4 cm or 30 inch) and on the west side they are 1.82 cubit thick (95.3 cm or 37.5 inch). Here again, that’s a difference of about 2.5 palm (18.7 cm or 7.36 inch).

KC38 – Drawing by Maragioglio & Rinaldi. [7]
Vertical section along the east-west axis.
The King’s Chamber, looking at the south wall (20 cubit).

Construction method.

The first layer of granite beams was placed directly on top of the walls of the King’s Chamber. Then, along the north as well as the south wall, a row of granite supporting blocks were placed on top of the first layer of granite beams. On the backside of the granite beams and the supporting stones a fairly wide space is left open between the granite and the limestone blocks that are standing behind it.

KC39 – The limestone blocks from the east and west side,
adapted to the shape of the granite beams.

There are limestone blocks on both the east and west sides of the granite beams, the shape of which has been adapted to the granite beams next to them. These limestone blocks don’t belong to the core of the pyramid, they are separate blocks that rest on the walls of the King’s Chamber. They are absolutely no part of the core of the pyramid.

It suddenly becomes clear why thicker limestone blocks were placed on the west wall than on the east wall. This gives a strong suspicion that a corridor is hidden behind the western wall, a corridor that goes to the really important rooms inside the pyramid.

KC40 – A secret shaft [C] going westwards to the real secret rooms.

It has since long time been clear that the horizontal plane that passes through the center of the pyramid is very important. This plane is at an altitude of 107.3 cubit above pavement. Perhaps the floors of all really secret rooms will be in that area.

KC41 – A corridor from the entrance towards the center of the pyramid.

As mentioned earlier, there must be a yet undiscovered corridor that begins at the true entrance of the pyramid and leads to an entrance above the King's Chamber. This entrance must be located just above the horizontal plane that passes through the center of the pyramid, at a height of 107.3 cubit.

KC42 – A secret corridor starting from above the King’s Chamber,
leading westwards to the real secret rooms in the pyramid.

According the designers of the pyramid, a safe and logical solution must probably have been a secret corridor like this one. A corridor that starts above the royal chamber and extends to the west to secret, undiscovered rooms in the pyramid. The granite of the King’s Chamber makes it almost impossible to reach the second part of the secret corridor [C]. Going along the side of this chamber isn’t possible either, there sits at least 20 cubit solid limestone from the core of the pyramid in the way.

KC43 – The King’s Chamber from east to west (20 cubit).
Looking southwards, view at the entrance in the north wall of the pyramid.

From the real entrance of the pyramid there’s the descending shaft towards the subterranean chamber about 30 meters below the pyramid. Just above this shaft there must be another corridor leading to above the King’s Chamber, at a height of 107.3 cubit above the pavement of the pyramid. When the “crown” (the King’s Chamber and the 4 layers granite beams above it) stood about 6.15 cubit lower there must have been an open space above this “crown” which gave access to another corridor in the west side leading further westwards to the most secret rooms in the pyramid. even if those secret rooms are 50 cubit away from the outside of the pyramid, there is still a free space of at least 50 cubit wide, more than enough space for secret rooms.

KC44 - Top view of the piramid with possible secret rooms on the west side.
The purple plane goes through the center point, at a height of 107.3 cubit above pavement.

A horizontal plane going through the center point of the pyramid, on a height of 107.3 cubit above pavement, is also square just like the base of the pyramid and has still a side of 271.38 cubit. On the drawing above, A1 and A2 are the points where the shafts from the queens chamber would normally come to the outside if they would be extended. However, these shafts already stop about 19.5 m earlier (horizontal distance). Point B1 and B2 are about the locations where the shafts are really ending.

For the moment nobody knows if there really are secret rooms on that location, if so it's not known how large they are. The drawing gives only an example of the available space there, it's huge....very huge.

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References to chapter G2


[1] – Photos taken by Jon Bodsworth.
See chapter 0 - Pictures.

Jon’s own photos of the pyramids and surroundings.
Also drawings from the books of Charles Piazzi Smyth.



[2]Rudolf Gantenbrink
See his website
www.cheops.org

 


[3]W.M. Flinders Petrie – The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh – 1883.
http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Flinders_Petrie

Book online:  
http://www.ronaldbirdsall.com/gizeh/index.htm


[4] – Drawings from the books of Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819 – 1900).
From his book : Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid (1877)

See Wikipedia: 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Piazzi_Smyth

Terms of copyright: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Piazzi-plate_7.jpg

[5] - Giovanni Battista Caviglia.
See Wikipedia:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Battista_Caviglia


[6] - Drawing by the Edgar Brothers.
Great Pyramid Passages, Volume 1 & 2 , (1910 & 1913)
John Edgar & Morton Edgar.

Photos public Domain, see Wikimedia:

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Johnedgarpyramid.jpg


Books online:
https://web.archive.org/web/20070928032004/http://www.a2z.org/wtarchive/docs/1913_Great_Pyramid_Passages_Vol_II.pdf


https://www.a2z.org/wtarchive/docs/1924_Great_Pyramid_Its_Symbolism_Science_and_Prophecy.pdf


[7] – Drawing(s) by Maragioglio & Rinaldi.
L'Architettura della Piramide Menefite, Rapallo 1965, Vol. IV

 

PDF Drawings Online:

http://www.gizapyramids.org/static/pdf%20library/maragioglio_piramidi_4tav.pdf